Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами A-G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
Don’t spend long on simple tasks
Use your initiative and common sense
Have confidence – know your business
Be aware of health and safety rules at work
At the start, everything will be new and you will probably be nervous about answering the telephone and dealing with customers. You will become more assured as you develop knowledge and experience – set about gaining that knowledge about your company as soon as possible.
Good timekeeping and regular attendance are vital qualities for every office worker. If there is no one available to answer the telephone or type up invoices, the system will soon grind to a halt. If you are genuinely ill, phone your employer as early as possible so they can arrange for someone to cover for you. If you think you are going to be off sick for more than one day, let them know.
Assess a situation and try to assist in any way you can. First impressions of a company are often gained from someone answering the telephone or sitting at a reception desk. If that person is you, then your company’s reputation can hinge on how you deal with customers.
Even if you know a customer is wrong, never be rude in return. If necessary, refer them to a senior staff member or to your employer to deal with.
You should be able to work on your own and find solutions for simple problems which happen throughout the day. If you have finished your current task, don’t sit and gaze around an untidy office. The time you have spare could be used in clearing up or sorting through old files. Management decisions should still be passed through your employer. If a salesman has arrived with brochures for new office equipment, it is not up to you to order yourself a new office chair – this is a decision you leave to your employer.
It is important not to gossip about your employer or the people you work with. If someone shares a confidence with you, don’t spread it around the fest of the office. People will soon learn whether they can trust you or not.
Be aware of potential dangers and follow safe practices strictly. Avoid having trailing leads from typewriters or kettles, which people could trip over. Check fire exits are not blocked by box or filling cabinets.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.
Health Advice for Travellers
Doctors tend to be poor educators; we have depressingly little to show for our efforts to educate the general public on even such a clear-cut issue as the effects of cigarette smoking on health. How much more difficult, then is it for doctors to provide large numbers of departing travellers with detailed information and effective advice for their trip when the usual forum for doing so is a single, hurried consultation, just before departure. There are limits to what can be achieved in or should be expected from a medical consultation A_____, even when the doctor is well- informed about the subject, and the traveller is receptive, has a perfect memory, and is good at doing what he or she is told.
What kind of advice should travelers receive? A list of rules and instructions B______ carries the implication that travellers are incapable of understanding the principles involved, are not interested, or do not ‘need’ to know. C______ advice offered on such condescending terms is seldom followed for long. The best advice is not a list of dos and don’ts, but a clear, rational explanation from which a conclusion is obvious.
D_____, we have studiously avoided giving advice to consult a doctor without stating the reason for doing so. ‘Consult your doctor’ is a useful formula to enable advice-givers to avoid difficult issues, but is a particularly unhelpful one when it relates to a problem which may arise abroad. E_____to find a doctor in a remote place. Some 85% of the world’s population have never seen a doctor, and never will. Advice for travellers must take account of the fact that travellers to many parts of the world will be F______.
It is hardly surprising that
But despite this
Throughout this book
In the same position
Given without explanation or justifications
It is not easy
Under the best of circumstances
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания А15-А21. В каждом задании обведите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа
A walk in the midday sun
Hot weather makes your heart pump harder, and if you’re not very fit, you start to understand why the majority of mountain rescue statistics are made up from summer walkers suffering heart attacks. Heat exhaustion is quite easy to get when you’re making a great physical effort. It happens where your body can’t produce enough sweat to keep you cool.
The answer is to keep up your water intake. It’s a good idea to drink a pint of water for every 10 degrees Fahrenheit every 24 hours. So, if the temperature is in the 70s, and you are doing a five-hour walk, you’ll need a minimum of around one and a half pints of water. It’s vital that you don’t wait until you develop a raging thirst before you stop for a drink – keep taking regular swigs from your water bottle.
Many walkers flavour their water with fruit juice, which makes it a lot more palatable. You could even use one of the isotonic drinks made for athletes, which replace the body’s salts lost through sweating. Powders such a Dioralyte, which you may have in the house as a treatment for diarrhoea, will do the job just as well, as its main aim is also effective rehydration.
Given that evaporation is your body’s cooling mechanism, you can help things along with an external application of water. Soaking your hat with water is a great way to cool the head, through if the sun is beating down, it will probably dry off almost immediately. Better still then if you can plunge into a river or the sea fully-clothed. And if that’s not possible, then at least take off your boots and socks and paddle in a cool stream.
Walking in the heat increases the rate at which your feet swell, which can lead to them feeling tight in your boots. Cool water from a stream reduces any swelling and helps general foot comfort. At the same time, you can check out your feet for signs of blisters. Extra sweating makes the skin softer and increases the chance of blisters forming, in the same way as when water leaks into your boots and gets to your feet.
As for what clothing you wear, this should be lightweight and reasonably loose-fitting. Tight clothing will feel uncomfortable and may even lead to the formation of an irritating rash known as ‘prickly heat’ on your skin. The answer, if this does develop, is to try and stay cool as much as possible. Do this by either keeping in the shade, or washing the affected area with cold water, but without soap. But prevention is by far the best approach, so keep your clothing light.
It’s understandable to want to remove any extraneous clothing when it’s extremely hot, but it doesn’t really make much sense to take off T-shirts. The sun’s rays can be quite strong, and shoulders are always very sensitive to sunburn. This is the worst place to be red and sore when you are wearing a heavy rucksack on your back. Wearing shorts can also create problems for walkers, as the backs of the legs can catch the sun very easily.
In fact, those days when an apparently harmless breeze is blowing can be the most deceptive. It might not feel so hot, so you probably won’t notice the damage being done so soon. As on every other day then, a good strong sun cream should therefore be applied to any skin which is exposed. Make the most of the summer, but treat the sun with the respect it deserves.
The writer says that hot weather
is the main cause of heart attacks.
requires walkers to have frequent drinks.
is the worst type of weather for mountain walking.
ensures that mountain walkers stay fit.
What does the writer say about ‘Dioralyte’?
It helps to reduce sweating.
It prevents the loss of body salts.
It will prevent you getting diarrhoea.
It works in the same way as an isotonic drink.
‘it’ in the paragraph 4 refers to
According to the text, when might your feel suffer?
when they cool down
if you are wearing tightly-fitting boots
when they are wet
if you have to walk through water
According to the writer, it is better to wear loose-fitting clothing because
it keeps you cool.
it is very light.
it is less likely to create problems for your skin.
it lasts longer than tight-fitting.
What does the writer mean by ‘extraneous’ clothing in paragraph 7?
clothing which is no longer needed to keep you warm
clothing which most people would consider unusual in hot weather
clothing which is too tight
clothing which is too heavy to wear
According to the writer, when are walkers particularly at risk from the effects of the sun?
when they are unaware of the heat
if their sun cream is not strong enough
when there is a strong wind
if they have suffered an injury
Грамматика и лексика (40 минут)
Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами В4-В10, так чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропусками полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы В4-В10.
A large-scale research _________ by advertisers on spending habits of ________teenagers. It has come up with some fascinating results. Girls across Europe ________ in age from 15 to 18 were interviewed. The researchers discovered that these girls want to be successful and sophisticated and are willing to spend to achieve the look they want – when they have the money, that is!
Now look here. Whatever your personal opinion about exams, there is no way you can avoid _____. They are, at best, a necessary evil but very much a part of our_____. Tests and examinations are given not only a ______ learning abilities but also to see how well a particular subject___________.
Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами В11-В16, так чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы В11-В16.
Slow, relaxed, …………running is an excellent exercise for cardiovascular fitness and weight control. It requires no special skill, little expenditure, and can be done almost anywhere. But excessive jogging, especially on hard surface, can result in ………… to the joints and muscles. Regular jogging also tends to shorten and ………..muscles because movements take place through a restricted range and are repeated many times. This makes it important to perform stretching exercises to maintain the ………. of the muscles most at risk. To get the greatest benefit and ……… the risks, it is best to increase your …………..distance slowly, by no more than 10-20 per cent every two weeks.
Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами А22-А28. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям А22-А28, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.
What do trees do? They blind together hillside soil and reduce erosion A22_____to run-off. Besides A23_____ a source of food and income-earing products, forests function as natural ‘gene banks’ and as a veritable virtual A24____ of biodiversity. Products from trees, shrubs, forests and bush lands provide a source of nutrition A25_____ingredients for medicines. Trees A26_____ provide shade to cattle and crops, leaves and pods provide fodder and the wood serves as fuel or is used for construction activities. They slow the wind and A27 _____it from fields, protecting the crops and reducing erosion. They can also be grown as cash crop for fruits, oil, timber, latex and gum A28_____. Trees help recycle nutrients from deep in the soil to the surface – nitrogen fixing trees act as natural fertilizers by absorbing nitrogen from the atmosphere and fixing it in the soil.
as well as
to the point
to name a few
to the same extent
to say the least